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译言网:二手烟有可能会损害我们的精神健康  

2010-06-13 09:27:35|  分类: 烟草危害 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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你整天被烟雾笼罩吗?如果是这样,你要小心了,长此以往很有可能会把你送进精神病院!听起来很耸人听闻吧,但别不当真,这可是有科学依据的。

 

其他人吸烟会对你的心肺功能造成损害,此外,有一项新的研究表明,它也有可能对你的精神健康产生危害。

Researchers found that non-smokers exposed to a lot of secondhand smoke were 50 percent more likely to suffer from psychological distress than those not exposed to other people's smoke.

研究人员发现,暴露于大量二手烟中的不吸烟者可能要比那些不被二手烟笼罩的人多承受50%的心理压力。1

And their risk of being admitted to a psychiatric hospital over the next six years was nearly tripled (it was almost quadrupled for smokers).

在接下来的六年内,他们进精神病院的风险接近三倍(对于吸烟者来说几乎是四倍)。

So-called "passive smoking" is very common, Dr. Mark Hamer of University College London in the UK and colleagues note in the Archives of General Psychiatry. One US study found evidence of secondhand smoke in 60 percent of non-smokers.

所谓的“被动吸烟”是相当普遍的,来自于英国伦敦大学学院的Mark Hamer和他的同事们在普通精神病学档案中这样写道。一项美国的研究也发现了一些证据证明,二手烟吸烟者占不吸烟者人数的60%。

Studies measuring the nicotine byproduct cotinine have made it possible to precisely measure secondhand smoke exposure and its health effects, they add, but there is "very limited information" on how other people's smoke might affect mental health.

测量尼古丁的副产品可替宁的研究已经使精确测量二手烟暴露度和其对健康的影响成为可能,Hamer和他的同事们补充道,但对于其他人吸烟是如何影响到不吸烟者的精神健康的,这方面的信息还十分有限。

To investigate, Hamer and his colleagues studied 5,560 non-smoking adults and 2,595 smoking adults, none of whom had a history of mental illness. The study subjects answered questions about psychological distress and admissions to psychiatric hospitals were tracked for six years.

为了此项调查,Hamer和他的同事研究了5560名不吸烟的成年人和2595名吸烟的成年人,他们其中无一人有精神病史。那些回答说有精神上的苦恼、想进精神病院的被试者被追访了六年。

Exposure to secondhand smoke among non-smokers was determined using saliva levels of cotinine, which is formed when nicotine is broken down in the body and is an established marker of nicotine exposure.

那些不吸烟但经常被二手烟笼罩的被试者,被要求取唾液样本来测量唾液中的可替宁水平。当人体内的尼古丁被分解时,可替宁就会形成,它也是尼古丁暴露的标志。

A total of 14.5 percent of study subjects reported psychological distress. According to the investigators, the higher a person's secondhand smoke exposure, the greater their risk of psychological distress, while the risk was highest for people who were themselves smokers.

共有14.5%的被试者说自己有精神上的苦恼。根据这些被调查者的情况,Hamer他们发现,一个人越经常暴露于二手烟中,他有精神方面问题的风险就越高,而具有最高风险的是那些本身就吸烟的人。

People with high exposure to secondhand smoke (those with the highest cotinine levels) who didn't actually smoke themselves were 62 percent more likely to report psychological distress than those unexposed to secondhand smoke, while the risk for smokers was 2.45 times greater.

暴露在二手烟浓雾中(这时空气中有相当高含量的尼古丁)而本身并不吸烟的人患精神疾病的可能性要比不处于二手烟环境中的人高62%,而对于吸烟者本身来说,这种风险则高达2.45倍甚至更高。

During follow-up, which averaged about six years, 41 people were admitted to psychiatric hospitals. The risk of hospitalization was 2.8 times greater for secondhand smokers compared to people not exposed to secondhand smoke, while it was 3.7 times greater for smokers.

在后续平均约六年的追访中,被试者中有41人进了精神病院。被动吸烟者收院治疗的风险是不处于二手烟环境中的不吸烟者的2.8倍,而吸烟者的风险则达到3.7倍甚至更高。

The effects were stronger for never-smokers than for ex-smokers, Hamer noted; the fact that former smokers were able to quit could suggest they were intrinsically less vulnerable to the effects of nicotine.

与戒烟者相比,这种影响对于那些从不吸烟的人是最为强烈的,Hamer写道;曾经吸烟的人最终戒掉烟瘾的事实说明,他们从本质上来说更不易受到尼古丁的影响。

Studies like the current one can't prove that something caused something else, Hamer said in an interview. However, he added, the link remained even after he and his colleagues accounted for social status, alcohol intake and other factors that could influence both the risk of mental health problems and the likelihood of being exposed to secondhand smoke. "We did see pretty robust associations that remained after those adjustments," he said.

在一次采访中,Hamer说,目前这种研究并不能说明一件事会导致另一件事的发生。但是,他补充道,在他和他的同事们将社会地位、摄入的酒精量和其他既影响到精神健康同时又产生吸入二手烟可能性的因素都算上后,这种联系是存在的。“我们的确看到了那些强有力的联系。”他说。

Moreover, Hamer and colleagues note that animal studies have hinted that tobacco may depress a person's mood and some human studies have also suggested a potential link between smoking and depression. "Taken together, therefore, our data are consistent with other emerging evidence to suggest a causal role of nicotine exposure in mental health," the investigators conclude.

此外,Hamer和他的同事还写道,动物方面的研究也显示了烟草可能使人的情绪低落,一些人类研究也说明了在吸烟和情绪低落间的联系。“因此,所有这些加在一起,我们的数据与其他证据共同证明了尼古丁在破坏精神健康方面的作用。”undefined

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