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2009年全球烟草流行报告:暴露于二手烟与过早死亡  

2010-08-04 13:17:23|  分类: MPOWER |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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原文:Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and early death

Second-hand tobacco smoke is present in virtually all public places where smoking is permitted (14), and there is no safe level of exposure (15). Globally, it is estimated that about one third of adults are regularly exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke (16). In the European Union, 14% of non-smokers are exposed to other people’s tobacco smoke at home, and a third of working adults are exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke at the workplace at least some of the time (17). In Canada, about a quarter of nonsmokers report regular exposure at home, in vehicles or in public places (18).

An estimated 700 million children worldwide – about 40% of all children – are exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke at home (19). The global average of children with at least one smoking parent, according to the definition used by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), is estimated to be 43% (20). Data from the GYTS indicate that, among those surveyed, nearly half of youth aged 13 to 15 years who have never smoked are exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke at home, with a similar percentage exposed in places other than the home; these youth are 1.5 to 2 times more likely to initiate smoking than those not exposed (20).

Second-hand tobacco smoke is estimated to cause about 600 000 premature deaths per year worldwide (16), approximately the same number of people who are killed by measles or women who die during childbirth each year (21). Of all deaths attributable to second-hand tobacco smoke, 31% occur among children and 64% occur among women (16). About 50 000 deaths in the United States each year – about 11% of all tobacco-related deaths – are attributable to exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (22). In the European Union, second-hand tobacco smoke exposure at work is estimated to cause about 7 600 deaths per year, with exposure at home causing an additional 72 100 deaths (23).

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