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2009年全球烟草流行报告:二手烟对经济的威胁  

2010-08-04 13:25:23|  分类: MPOWER |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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原文:The economic threat of second-hand tobacco smoke

In addition to a large and growing health burden, second-hand tobacco smoke exposure also imposes economic burdens on individuals and countries, both for the costs of direct health care as well as indirect costs from reduced productivity. Second-hand tobacco smoke exposure in the United States alone costs an estimated US$ 5 billion annually in direct medical costs and another US$ 5 billion in indirect costs caused by productivity losses from lost wages due to disability and premature death (42). The US Occupational Health and Safety Administration estimated in 1994 that clean air increases productivity by 3% (43).

Mortality: US$ 1 716 million Morbidity: US$ 142 million Costs of to bacco -relat ed illness and death , china, Hong Kong Special Administrati ve Region, 1998Source: (45).

Several studies estimate that 10% of total tobacco-related economic costs are attributable to second-hand tobacco smoke exposure (44). The economic costs related to tobacco use in the United States total approximately US$ 193 billion per year (smoking-attributable healthcare expenditures of US$ 96 billion and productivity losses of US$ 97 billion) (22).

Economic studies on the cost of tobacco use have been conducted in some other countries, but in most cases these do not assess costs specifically related to secondhand tobacco smoke exposure. Where data exist, economic costs related to secondhand tobacco smoke exposure elsewhere are roughly similar to those in the United States. In the China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, for example, the cost of direct medical care, long-term care and productivity losses attributable to second-hand tobacco smoke exposure is approximately US$ 156 million annually (about US$ 24 per capita, or 23% of total tobacco-related costs) (45).

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